a) Injuries :-

1) Compression fracture of the vertebral column.

2) Rupture of intervertebral discs.

3) Injuries to ligaments and muscles of back.

4) Lumbosacral strain.

5) Intervertebral joint injuries.

6) Fracture of processes of vertebra.

b) Functional backache due to imbalance:-

1) During pregnancy.

2) Pot belly.

3) Diseases of the hip joint.

4) Curvature in the spine due to congenital defect.

5) Short leg in one side.

c) Backache due to inflammatory conditions:-

1) Infection of the bone due to bacteria.

2) Tuberculosis of the spine.

3) Arthritis.

4) Brucellosis.

5) Lumbago or fibrositis.

6) Inflamation of the muscles.

7) Anchylosing spondylitis.

d) Backache due to degenerative diseases in the back.

1) Osteoarthritis.

2) Osteoporosis in old people.

3) Degenaration of the intervertebral disc.

e) Tumour in the spine:--

1) Primory tumour of the bones in the spine.

2) Metastatic tumours from other sites like prostate,lungs,kidneys,intestine ect.

2) Backache due to gynaecological problems:-

a) After childbirth.

b) After gynaecological operations.

c) Prolapse of the uterus.

d) Pelvic inflammatory diseases.

e) Cancerous lesions of the pelvic organs.

f) Endometriosis.

3) Backache due to problems in other parts of the body.

a) Renal stones.

b) Ureteric stone.

c) Cancer of prostate.

d) Pancreatitis.

e) Biliary stones.

f) Peptic ulcer.

g) Inflammations of pelvic organs.

h) Occlusion of aorta and illiac arteries.

Investigation of a case of backache:-

1) Complete blood count.

2) Routine urine examination.

3) Ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis.

4) X-ray of the lumbar and sacral region.

5) MRI of the spine.

5) CT scan of abdomen and pelvic region.

6) Examination of rectum,prostate,genito urinary organs.

Treatment of back ache:-

1) Removing the cause for backache.

2) Symptomatic treatement.

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